Data Sources and References

PHOSPHORUS

Eric Smeltzer, Environmental Scientist, Vermont Department of Environmental Conservation, unpublished data.
Fred Dunlap, Environmental Scientist and Lake Champlain Coordinator, New York Department of Environmental Conservation, unpublished data.
Martin Mimeault, Agronomist and Lake Champlain Coordinator, Quebec Ministry of the Environment, Sustainable Development and the Fight Against Climate Change, unpublished data.

P Chart Target
Long Term Monitoring Program (LCBP, VT ANR, NYS DEC)

Point/NonPoint Loads
Long Term Monitoring Program (LCBP, VT ANR, NYS DEC)
Medalie, 2014. Concentration and Flux of Total and Dissolved Phosphorus, Total Nitrogen, Chloride, and Total Suspended Solids for Monitored Tributaries of Lake Champlain, 1990–2012, USGS OFR 2014-1209.

Tributary P Loads
Medalie, 2014. Concentration and Flux of Total and Dissolved Phosphorus, Total Nitrogen, Chloride, and Total Suspended Solids for Monitored Tributaries of Lake Champlain, 1990–2012, USGS OFR 2014-1209.
Medalie, 2013. Concentration, Flux, and the Analysis of Trends of Total and Dissolved Phosphorus, Total Nitrogen, and Chloride in 18 Tributaries to Lake Champlain, Vermont and New York, 1990–2011, USGS SIR 2013-5021.

Wastewater Treatment
Long Term Monitoring Program (LCBP, VT ANR, NYS DEC)


HUMAN HEALTH AND TOXINS

Drinking Water
Jim Fay, Manager, Champlain Water District, personal communication
Liz Royer, Water Systems Specialist, Rural Water Association of Vermont, unpublished data.

Beach Closures
Lake Champlain Basin Program, unpublished data compiled from VT ANR, NYS DEC, QC MDDELCC, Town Offices.

Blue Green Algae Blooms
Angela Shambaugh, Aquatic Biologist, Vermont Department of Environmental Conservation, personal communication. Mike Winslow, Staff Scientist, Lake Champlain Committee, unpublished data.

Fish Consumption Advisories
New York: http://www.health.ny.gov/environmental/outdoors/fish/health_advisories/regional/adirondack.htm Vermont: http://healthvermont.gov/enviro/fish_alert/
QC (French only): http://www.mddelcc.gouv.qc.ca/eau/guide/presentation.htm

PCPs Sidebar
Phillips and Chalmers, 2009. Wastewater effluent, combined sewer overflows and other sources of organic compounds to Lake Champlain. Journal of the American Water Resources Association, 45, 1, pp. 45-47. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1752-1688.2008.00288.x/abstract" Rozalia Project, Lake Champlain Shoreline Sediment Marine Debris Study, 2014. http://rozaliaproject.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/11/Lake-Champlain-Shoreline-Sediment-Debris-Study-small.pdf

Mercury in Fish
Neil Kamman, Program Manager, Water Quality Monitoring and Assessment at Vermont Department of Environmental Conservation, unpublished data.


BIODIVERSITY AND AIS

Conserved Wetlands
Chris Smith, Supervisory Fish and Wildlife Biologist, USFWS, unpublished data.
Reed Sims, GIS Specialist, USDA-NRCS, unpublished GIS data.

Lake Champlain Food Web
Tim Mihuc, Director, Lake Champlain Research Institute, personal communication.

Lake Champlain Smelt Populations
Bernie Pientka, Fisheries Biologist, Division of Fish and Wildlife, Vermont Agency of Natural Resources, unpublished data.

Sea Lamprey Wounding Rates
Brad Young, Supervisory Fish and Wildlife Biologist, USFWS, unpublished data.

AIS Arrivals
Lake Champlain Basin Program, unpublished data.

AIS Threats
Lake Champlain Basin Program, unpublished data.
de Lafontaine, Y. and G. Costan. 2002. "Introduction and Transfer of Alien Aquatic Species in the Great Lakes–St. Lawence River Drainage Basin". In Alien Invaders in Canada's Waters, Wetlands and Forests. Natural Resources Canada.
Strayer, D.L. 2012. The Hudson Primer: The Ecology of an Iconic River.

LCBP Boat Launch Steward Sidebar and Map
Lake Champlain Basin Program, unpublished data.

Spiny Waterflea
Tim Mihuc, Director, Lake Champlain Research Institute, unpublished data.
USGS online factsheet: http://nas.er.usgs.gov/queries/factsheet.aspx?SpeciesID=162

Water Chestnut
Ann Bove, Environmental Scientist, Vermont Department of Environmental Conservation, unpublished data.


CLIMATE CHANGE

Migrating Climate
Union of Concerned Scientists, 2007 (Frumhoff et al., 2007); VCA 2014 (Galford et al., 2014); IPCC, 2014 (Stocker et al., 2013); NCA, 2014 (Melillo et al., 2014)

Lake Freeze Over
National Weather Service: Lake Freeze Over_NWS_2015.xls (National Weather Service, n.d.)

Water Surface Temp
Smeltzer 2012 JGLR Champlain Issue LTMP.pdf (Smeltzer et al., 2012)

Climate Sidebar
Frumhoff, P.C., McCarthy, J.J., Melillo, J.M., Moser, S.C., Wuebbles, D.J., 2007. Confronting Climate Change in the U.S. Northeast: Science, Impacts, and Solutions, Synethesis report of the Northeast Climate Impacts Assessment. Union of Concerned Scientists, Cambridge, MA.

Galford, G.L., Hoogenboom, A., Carlson, S., Ford, S., Nash, J., Palchak, E., Pears, S., Underwood, K., Baker, D.V., 2014. Considering Vermont’s Future in a Changing Climate: The First Vermont Climate Assessment. Gund Institute for Ecological Economics.

Guilbert, J., Beckage, B., Winter, J.M., Horton, R.M., Perkins, T., Bomblies, A., 2014. Impacts of Projected Climate Change over the Lake Champlain Basin in Vermont. J. Appl. Meteorol. Climatol. 53, 1861–1875. doi:10.1175/JAMC-D-13-0338.1

Maurer, E.P., Brekke, L., Pruitt, T., Duffy, P.B., 2007. Fine-resolution climate projections enhance regional climate change impact studies. Eos Trans. Am. Geophys. Union 88, 504–504. doi:10.1029/2007EO470006

Melillo, J.M., Richmond, T.C., Yohe, G.W., 2014. Climate Change Impacts in the United Sates: The Third National Climate Assessment. U.S. Global Change Research Program.

National Weather Service, n.d. Dates of Lake Champlain Closing [WWW Document]. URL http://www.weather.gov/btv/lakeclose (accessed 3.18.15).

PRISM Climate Group, O.S.U., 2004. URL http://prism.oregonstate.edu

Smeltzer, E., Shambaugh, A. d., Stangel, P., 2012. Environmental change in Lake Champlain revealed by long-term monitoring. Lake Champlain 2010 38, Supplement 1, 6–18. doi:10.1016/j.jglr.2012.01.002

Stager, J.C., Thill, M., 2010. Climate Change in the Champlain Basin. The Nature Conservancy.

Stocker, T.F., Qin, D., Plattner, G.K., Tignor, M., Allen, S.K., Boschung, J., Nauels, A., Xia, Y., Bex, V., Midgley, P.M., 2013. Climate Change 2013: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA.


FLOODING RISKS

Otter Creek Floodplains
Ned Swanberg, Mapping and Planning Coordinator, Vermont Department of Environmental Conservation, unpublished GIS data.